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CS 321, Fall 2008                              Prof. M. T. Boatwright (<tboat@duke.edu>)
Allen 239, TTh 2:50-4:05                       Office: 231 Allen Bldg., 684-5076
Ofc. Hrs:  M 4:00-5:30 pm, Tu 4:05-5:30, & by appt. (just email or call in advance)
Classical Studies 321S
The Edges of the Imperial Roman World

This seminar explores life along the geographical peripheries of the Roman Empire. During the semester each of us will explore an institution, physical reality, cultural expression, or the like of a particular community, area, or 'frontier,' using archaeological, literary, epigraphic, numismatic, papyrological and whatever other evidence we can find.  Weekly topics provide a common ground for presentations and comparison of specific phenomena, so that we can deepen knowledge of "our" communities while illuminating the challenges and commonalities of living on the edges of the Roman world.  But our goal is not simply to investigate diverse specific communities, cultures, or archaeological phenomena, for we will also read and evaluate secondary scholarship, some using more theoretical approaches.  This comparative, analytical work should enable us to see the Roman data with fresh eyes. 

The work of this course consists of:
    1) Daily:  Class attendance and active engagement in dialogue and exploration; you are expected to go beyond the assigned readings. For your brief weekly updates (see following paragraph) you are encouraged to prepare material to share with others; although I don't want you to waste time "perfecting" a handout or a PPT, visual and written work should be concise, accurate, clear, and illuminating. Students must meet with me individually in Wks V & VI to discuss progress. [30% of final grade]
            2) Sept. 2: A 20-minute quiz on Roman provinces, provincial commands, and provincial societies (id's and map quiz).  Information on Blackboard site. [5%]
    3) Sept. 11: Submission and discussion of preliminary idea of your semester project: ½-p. write up of question(s) to be addressed and by what means, and ½-p. preliminary bibliography (with some ancient evidence). [5%]
3) Sept 23:  Rewrite of abstract for semester's project.  Follow guidelines of AbstrFormat32108 on Blackboard site. [5%]
4) Oct. 21:  First go-round of your paper due, as a 7-10-page paper.  Follow guidelines posted on Blackboard site.  [20%] 
5) Nov. 18:  New abstract due, same format as for Sept. 18 but incorporating new research and indicating progress on your paper. [5%]
6) Dec. 9.  Due date of final paper, whose 18-20 pp. length underscores the expectation that you will have substantially revised your earlier version of Oct. 21.  Use same guidelines as for Oct. 21. [30%]

I envision our weekly classes as follows. I'll usually speak for the first part of Tuesdays (particularly at the beginning of the semester), after which we'll discuss the assigned reading(s); Thursdays will be geared towards updates on your projects. Your brief (5-10 min., max.) updates should note not only new info you have found, but also problems you are encountering with evidence, how the week's readings affected your understanding of the ancient evidence, and vice versa (e.g., does your evidence validate or discredit the readings?).  We should wrap up each session by comparing and contrasting the analyses of your projects, discussing commonalities and trying to explain differences.  Thus over the semester we address, with ever more information and knowledge, a fundamental issue of the Roman empire:  how particular, and/or how characteristically "Roman", were Rome's different regions.

Syllabus and Readings (to be done before the Tuesday class that week; most readings are on e-reserve, sometimes with "hard copy" available in our departmental office):

Wk I:      Introduction to the course; the significance of the topic
    Aug 26: Introduction.  Discussion of goals, approaches, resources
    Aug. 28:  The significance of frontier studies
Readings: A. K. Bowman, "Outposts of empire:  Vindolanda, Egypt and the empire of Rome," JRA 19 (2006) 75-93; Tac. Hist. 1.4-11, Ann. 4.5;  Suet. Aug. 101.4.

Wk II:    The Grand Strategy - or not
    Sept 2:  Quiz.  Read Luttwak for this class period. 
    Sept 4:  Grand Strategy, Grand Mirage?
Readings: E. N. Luttwak, The Grand Strategy of the Roman Empire:  From the First Century A.D. to the Third (Baltimore, MD:  Johns Hopkins UP 1976) xi-50; Everett L. Wheeler, "Methodological Limits and the Mirage of Roman Strategy, part II," Journal of Military History 57 (1993) 215-240 (on J-Stor); and see C. R. Whittaker, "Grand strategy, or just a grand debate?," in C. R. Whittaker, Rome and its Frontiers:  the Dynamics of Empire (London and New York:  Routledge 2004) 28-49.

Wk III:   Knowledge of frontiers, conceptions of center and periphery
    Sept 9: Center, periphery, and drawing the line.
    Sept 11: Turn in project thoughts; initial discussion. Dr. Johnson will discuss his JECS article with us 3:30-4:05.
Readings:  C. R. Whittaker, "Mental maps and frontiers:  seeing like a Roman," in Whittaker 2004, 63-87; C. Nicolet, Space, Geography, and Politics in the Early Roman Empire (Ann Arbor, MI:  UMich Press, 1991) 57-85.  For Thursday be sure to read A. P. Johnson, "Identity, Descent, Polemic:  Ethnic Argumentation in Eusebius' Praeparatio Evangelica," JECS 12 (2004) (access on ProQuest: http://proquest.umi.com/pqdlink?index=8&did=590211591&SrchMode=3&sid=4&Fmt=4&VInst=PROD&VType=PQD&RQT=309&VName=PQD&TS=1219264327&clientId=15020&aid=1)

Wk IV:   Types of frontiers
    Sept 16:  Rivers, walls, ditches
    Sept 18:  Cutting off or regulating passage?   
Readings: P. J. Jones, Reading Rivers in Roman Literature and Culture (Lanham, MD:  Lexington 2005) 37-47; K. D. Kristof, "The nature of frontiers and boundaries," in R. E. Kasperson and J. G. Minghi, eds., The structure of political geography (London 1969) 126-31; D. Braund, "River frontiers in the environmental psychology of the Roman world," in D. L. Kennedy, ed., The Roman army in the East (JRA Suppl. 18; Ann Arbor, MI 1996) 43-47; HA, Hadr. 11.

Wk V:   Patrolling the frontiers, I
    Sept 23:  Legionary camps  (Rewritten abstract due)
    Sept 25: Legionaries
Readings: N. Pollard, "The Roman Army," in D. S. Potter, ed., A Companion to the Roman Empire  (Malden, MA: Blackwell 2006) 206-27; M. C. Bishop, "Praesidium:  social, military, and logistical aspects of the Roman army's provincial distribution during the early principate," in A. Goldsworthy and I. Haynes, The Roman Army as a Community (JRA Suppl. 34; Portsmouth, RI, JRA, 1999) 111-18.  Tac. Ann. 1.16-51.

Wk VI: Patrolling the frontiers, II
    Sept 30: Auxiliary camps and auxiliaries
    Oct 2:  How"Romanized" were auxiliary cohorts?
Readings:  T. Dirks and N. Roymans, "Returning auxiliary veterans:  some methodological considerations," JRA 19 (2006) 121-35, and C. Bridger, "Veteran settlement in the Lower Rhineland:  the nevidence from the civitas Traianensis," ibid. 137-49; M. M. Roxan, "An Auxiliary/fleet Diploma of Moesia inferior: 127 August 20," ZPE 118 (1997) 287-299 (PDF).

Wk VII:  Feeding and supplying the frontier: economic considerations
    Oct 7:  Types of food and supplies
    Oct 9:  The effects of supplies on local communities
Readings:  P. Erdkampf, The Roman Army and the Economy (Amsterdam:  J. C. Gieben 2002) 5-16, 47-69; A. King, "Animals and the Roman army:  the evidence of animal bones," in Goldsworthy and Haynes 1999, 139-49.

Wk VIII:   Neighboring civilian communities:  canabae, vici and the like
    Oct 14:  FALL BREAK
    Oct 16:  The concerns of neighbors; concern for neighbors
Readings: Tac. Hist. 4.12-37. R. Kurzmann, "Soldier, Civilian and Military Brick Production," OJA 24.4 (2005) 405-414 (PDF), A. Gardner, "The social identities of soldiers:  boundaries and connections in the later Roman world," in R. Roth and J. Keller, eds., Roman by Integration:  Dimensions of group identity in material culture and text (JRA Suppl. 66; Portsmouth, RI:  JRA, 2007) 93-103.

Wk IX:  Sex and gender on the frontier
    Oct 21:  First draft of your paper due.
    Oct 23:  Women, marriage, families
Readings:  L. Allason-Jones, "Women and the Roman army in Britain," in Goldsworthy and Haynes 1999, 41-51; R. Feig Vishnia, "The Shadow Army - The Lixae and the Roman Legions," ZPE 139 (2002) 265-272; John E. Thorburn, Jr., "Lixae and Calones: Following the Roman Army," Classical Bulletin 79.1 (2003) 47-61.
Wk X:   Religion and cults among the troops and on frontiers
    Oct 28:  Roman imperial cult in the army       
    Oct 30:  Diffusion of imperial cult, and other external cults
Readings: O. Stoll, "The Religions of the Armies," in Erdkamp 2007, 451-76; G. L. Irby-Massie, "The Roman Army and the Cult of the Campestres" ZPE 113 (1996) 293-300 (PDF); J. Webster, "Creolizing the Roman Provinces," AJA 105 (2001) 209-25; David Noy, "'A sight unfit to see' Jewish reaction to the Roman Imperial Cult," ClIre 8 (2001) 68-83 (http://www.classicsireland.com/2001/noy.html)

Wk XI: Religions on the edge: Christianity and Judaism
    Nov 4:  Marginalization of pre-existing groups
    Nov 6: Liminal areas and the encouragement of difference
Readings:  M. W. Graham, News and Frontier Consciousness in the Late Roman Empire (Ann Arbor MI:  UMich Press) 27-50; Martin Goodman, "Trajan and the Origins of Roman Hostility to the Jews," P&P 182 (2004) 3-29 (PDF).
Wk XII:   The construction of identity/ identities along the frontier
    Nov 11:  Can those outside the frontier have a history, or identity?
    Nov 13:  Changes in the later Roman period
Readings: B. Shaw, "Rebels and Outsiders," in A. Bowman, P. Garnsey, and D. Rathbone, eds., CAH XI:  The High Empire, A.D. 70-192 (Cambridge 2000) 361-403; A. E. Coombes, "Ethnography and the Formation of National Cultural Identifies," in S. Hiller, ed., The Myth of Primitivism (London 1991) 189-214; Tacitus, Germania.

Wk XIII:   The permeability of frontiers:  people, goods, money, ideas
    Nov 18:  Which perspective should one take?     
    Nov 20:  How to gauge movement
Readings: T. Grane, "Did the Romans really know (or care) about Southern Scandinavia?  An archaeological perspective," in T. Grane, ed., Beyond the Roman Frontier.  Roman Influences on the Northern Barbaricum (Rome:  Quasar, 2007) 7-29; P. Wells, The Barbarians Speak:  How the Conquered Peoples Shaped Roman Europe (Princeton:  PUP 1999).

Wk XIV: Nov 25 - last class.  Wrap up:  what needs more investigation?

Papers due Tuesday Dec. 9, by 5 pm.

Rev. 8/26/08

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