Duke Wiki  logo
Skip to end of metadata
Go to start of metadata

3.0 Facility Design - biggest part

Note: The EWB-USA Conference call notes are available at  https://wiki.duke.edu/display/engineerswithoutborders/December+6%2C+2010+Conference+Cal

3.1 Description of Facilities- Provide a concise description of the facilities that are planned. This description can be in text or graphic format. This section must fully and concisely describe the facilities that are proposed for implementation. This section should be clear enough such that a reader who is not familiar with the project could read this section of the report in five minutes and know what facilities the chapter proposed to implement.

Description of Facilities: 2 to 5 enhanced spring boxes at unique sites in the vicinity of Nkokonjeru, Uganda.  An "Enhanced spring box" entails the addition of a day-capacity storage tank and multiple spigots to the existing spring box. Existing spring box water pipes will connect to a handmade Ferro-cement storage tank that includes multiple spigots. Because of limited existing spring box output pipe ground clearance (<2 U.S feet), the tank will be built partially underground, and the limited surrounding area will be excavated.  This will eliminate the need for pumps to remove water from the tank. The excavated area will be reinforced from water erosion with cement, as standard with spring box designs.  The precise size of each cylindrical Ferro-cement tank will depend on the specific spring box site's water demand through the day and the springs' output. The excavation site will include stairs for access and safety rails where necessary at each site. Our team will start by piloting the program at a few box sites, and we will work with the community to increase the number of enhanced spring boxes in the community. We will give the community the design plans so they can construct more enhanced spring boxes as needed.

3.2 Description of Design and Design Calculations - Clearly describe each of the design elements with all preliminary calculations that served as your basis of design. For example, for a water supply project, state the assumed water demand and the available water supply; for a structural project, include justifiable assumptions regarding material strengths considering local sources. Provide a clear description of all the calculations and technical analyses carried out to date for the project. The details of the calculations or other analyses should be included in an appendix. The calculations should be professional quality, indexed and checked. They should include all of the pertinent calculations such that the reader may check the analysis and design for any component of the proposed facilities. The calculations should not include extraneous calculations that do not add to the explanation of the project.

 Disputed calculations from Dec.2:

Some answers:

                Cherry Can 18-24 inches (more on 18inches) The water spigot is above that. 

                Area of water exiting (14cm^2)

                                                (Integrated from 103-120 (120-Y^2)dy)

                We got the rough velocity to be 0.43 m/s

max flow rate: 20 L (1 jerrycan) in 4 min = 5 L / min

5 L / min * 1 m^3 / 1000L * 60 min / 1 hr * 24 hr / 1 day = 7.2 m^3 / day

If radius is 1m, the height of the cylinder that can be held in the tank is 7.2/pi = 2.3m.

Assume that spigots are 60cm above base for ease of use. Assume base is 20 cm thick, and walls are 20 cm thick as well.

3.3 Drawings - Provide drawings sufficient to describe the concept of the project. The level of detail is sufficient to describe the size, location and design constraints of each of the facilities being designed. The drawings do not have to be done using a computer drafting package. The type and number of drawings is dependant on the type of project. Please see the example drawings on the EWB-USA website for general examples of satisfactory drawing sets. The drawings should be assembled into one coherent drawing set - not many disparate drawings that do not relate to one another. They should have a cover sheet and index. Note that in general, students do not have the capacity to produce drawing sets without significant guidance from a mentor experienced in preparing engineering drawings.

4.0 Project Ownership

Describe who will own and operate the constructed facilities after they are completed. The chapter must know exactly who will own and operate the facilities. Statements such as "the whole community will contribute to maintenance" are not adequate. The chapter must identify what entity will own the project including the constructed facilities and the land on which they are placed. In almost all cases, the facilities must be publically owned. In cases where the facilities are built in individual homes (for example stoves or point of use water treatment) the facilities can be owned by individuals in the community. The facilities should not be owned by an NGO unless that NGO is operating in a public function. It is also vital to define who will operate the facility.

 Our project will incorporate community identified leaders to be broadly structured as project owners.  Specifically, we will have the town council own the project, but they will assign local people to monitor specific functions, and inform the town council when repairs need to be made. This structure can be considered analogous to community ownership on one level, because the community accepts the town councilmen, but with the benefits of personal individual ownership. Community identified owners have been identified as an effective form of ownership in India, and combat the corruption of random individual ownership and the inactivity of community ownership.  Our project will be built on community ground, by the springboxes, and owned by the town council. The town council will identify individuals to monitor the structures. In section 6.0 we deal with the costs and payment in this system. 

5.0 Constructability

Provide a discussion of the constructability of the proposed facilities. Include the proposed construction schedule. Discuss what role the chapter will play in the construction (owners representative, general contractor, labor under the supervision of others, etc.). Provide a general discussion about the materials, general labor, skilled labor and equipment that will be needed for construction of the facilities. This discussion does not have to include a detailed construction plan but must be detailed enough to allow the chapter to determine the constraints for construction of the project.

D-EWB will participate in the on-site construction of the fill stations.  The chapter will supervise the construction and ensure the project's adherence to design parameters.  The team will also provide labor in coordination with local workers. Local labor is arranged for most site preparation (excavation), and will also be involved with material transportation. Local laborers can also assist with the construction of the system.

Unskilled labor is necessary for excavation and transportation of materials. Skilled labor is necessary for construction of the tank and plumbing fixtures.

Equipment needed:

-trucks for transportation of building materials
-gas-powered pumps for removing water from dig site
-hammers, saws for wooden form
Construction Schedule

Day 1: Do site surveying - determine optimal location for fill station, and mark clearly
Day 2: Begin excavation (if necessary)
Day 3-8: Excavate (for as long as necessary).
Once excavation is complete:
Day 9 - Construct wooden mold, lay out piping
Day 10 - Wire grid and base filling.
Day 11 - continued work on project, frame is made for the rest of tank with iron rods.
Day 12 - Further construction, cement is poured over mesh base.
Day 13 - Begin plastering inside.
Day 14 - Add finishing touches.

3/8" reinforcing rods
1 ½" galvanised pipe
3 inch reinforced rods are welded to the door frame to attach to the roof structure.
2 Central Spiders
1 ½" galvanized pipe coupling is welded to the center of the spider and connecting rods, to support an 1 ½" galvanised pipe that will support the roof.
Wood frames for cement

6.0 Operation and Maintenance

Describe the O&M requirements of the facilities - financial, administrative structure, technical expertise, education, written manuals, etc. It is essential that the ongoing O&M of the system is addressed in a detailed manner. This means that the community (with the help of the chapter) has defined (and hopefully started to implement) all aspects of maintenance of the facilities. If the O&M is dependant on financial contributions from outside the community (donations) the O&M plan will likely be judged deficient.

One of our project's highlights is the simplicity of the design. The expertise required for individual usage and for monitoring the facilities is at a minimal. Operation by the community members would consist of opening and closing a clearly defined, durable spigot. There would thus be minimal need for education on the operation of the tank, for the tank is just a means for adding spigots. The town council is a public administrative structure that will be in ownership of the project.  The community leaders are also members who use the facilities, and whose monitoring of the facilities will not cost the council additional resources.  A fundamental principle of our system's design is that should repairs be required, they would require minimal expertise in plumbing and engineering, comparable to what skills the local engineer and mechanics would have (The only moving parts and weak points of the structure are the piping and valves).  Maintenance on the facilities should be rare, and constitute least expensive elements of the project, and as such, be economically viable for the town council to support.
    For all intensive purposes project maintenance will consist of minimal maintenance in plumbing valves and plumbing joints. The Town Village Council will be responsible for addressing these minimal repairs and contracting the work to a plumber or handyman. The Town Village Council is in the best position to address maintenance issues because they know the community needs and are the authority in charge of addressing the vast kinds of problems that arise within the community. The council is comprised of invested members of the community that are elected into office, therefore indicating that they are respected by the community. The Town Village Council has the most influence on the community, in addition to the best access to any resources that might be necessary for repairs. They are the ones with access to the community funding and have the influence to allocate the funds as necessary. It is thus natural that the responsibility of maintenance falls on this council.

    In case of emergency failure that the Town Council is unable to repair, such as the tank cracking, our contract will call on them to report the failure to the NGO, RASD. In the case that the emergency failure prevents the entire system from working at all, the system will have a failsafe valve to bypass the tank and return to the original flow. In this manner, the community will be able to obtain water even if our design fails. RASD has been our community partner and has proven themselves to be reliable. RASD is very well respected within the community and is often drawn upon for expertise or advice. They have proven successful in addressing community needs, and quickly responding to issues that need quick solutions. Combining these two well-respected and dependable entities (RASD and the town council) within the community will ensure a timely and efficient repair to the system. We would be leaving the community sustaining the system themselves.

7.0 Sustainability

Provide a discussion about the sustainability of the project. Ideally, the community will have the capacity to maintain, repair and expand the system without any additional outside support. Include your selection of appropriate low maintenance alternatives, the use of local materials, what education and training your team is providing to the community and how the project is financially and ecologically sustainable

Our project is designed to be inheritably sustainable in that our system collects already
available streaming water into a storage tank and further routes it through multiple spigots to increase distribution efficiency. In this process there are few points of potential unexpected failure, and only spigot valves to be considered for long term maintenance.  The system will involve local materials and plumbing supplies that can be repaired by a local handyman who will be familiar with those materials. Should the original design valves no longer be available locally, any other spigot-type valve would be suitable.  As a failsafe, there will be a bypass valve to divert the water before our system and have it available as it is currently (as a constant uncontained spring water stream).

            As far as community awareness, we work with the TCN village council to maintain a community presence. Our design will require community acceptance (entailing a trust of the water source) and otherwise only basic spigot-usage knowledge for day to day use.  Our overall major task in training is to have the local community understand the capability of the bypass valve.  We would like the valve to be easily accessible to the community, but also prevent children tampering with the system. To the first account we will promote the importance of the valve while on site, and provide materials for the TCN to extend education after we leave.  On the second account, the bypass valve will be designed to hinder access to youngest of water-collecting children, who are considered the greatest risk of incidental damage. The access valve will remain in access to the older young adults and adults who collect water.

Once construction is finished, the system is low maintenance and inexpensive. Potential repairs will likely involve plumbing joint repair (leaks), and damaged spigot replacement, both of which can be performed by local plumbers/handymen. This cost would be the responsibility of the village council (TCN), as per the MOU. The ecological sustainability is inherent in the robust long-lasting project design, and more efficient use of local springbox water supplies that hitherto have be wasted when not actively collected.
The only costs would be in potential repairs that would be the responsibility of the town council. It will
provide more water than the original spring box would with increased accessibility. 

8.0 Community Agreement / Contract

Provide an English version of the agreement/contract that your team has developed with the community leadership and potentially the partner NGO. Your agreement/contract should include specific responsibilities related to the community's ownership and details on their funding mechanism to maintain the project into the future. Note that the EWB-USA National Office expects this agreement/contract to be signed prior to your team commencing implementation. If this has not yet been signed, please provide a status update on the agreement/contract.




1. Purpose:

a. Mutually pursue improvements to water access, quality, and/or quantity for        Nkokonjeru citizens.
b. Ensure that all spring box enhancements are constructed safely and reliably.
2. Participants. The three participating agencies in this MOU are as follows:
a. Duke University Chapter, Engineers Without Borders (D-EWB)
b. Rural Agency for Sustainable Development (RASD)
c. Town Council, Nkokonjeru, Uganda. (TCN)
3. To accomplish the purpose as stated above, the following are the primary responsibilities of each participant.
a. D-EWB
            (1). Complete a technical feasibility analysis of the spring box enhancements
            (2). Based upon the mutual conclusion of technical feasibility, prepare a design for the project. The design will be of sufficient detail to facilitate construction of the project.
            (3). Fund all D-EWB travel and lodging expenses.
            (4).       A. Secure funding sources for 95% of the final financial cost of the overall project construction.
                        OR (dependant on TCN action C3)
                        B. Secure funding sources for all project materials
            (5). Assist with construction of spring box enhancements at pilot sites in the community
            (1). Serve as the short-term and long-term coordinating interface between D-EWB and TCN.
            (2). Provide logistical support to all D-EWB teams while in Uganda.

            (3). Serve as emergency coordinator for documentation and verification in case of emergency project device failure.

c. TCN
            (1). Coordinate with community members who will benefit from a completed project to provide services in kind (such as: data collection and site preparation) during the technical feasibility phase and the construction of the project.
            (2). Accept as owner of facility and assume maintenance responsibility for each completed spring box enhancement.
                        A. Fund all maintenance expenses (labor and material inclusive)
                        B. Provide labor to fix the spring box enhancements in a timely manner
                        C. Contract a qualified Repair worker for all technical repairs.
                        D. Be responsive to local citizen feedback about the spring boxes
                        E. In case of extreme failure which TCN cannot repair, responsible to report detailed failure to RASD and ensure bypass valve use.
            (3).      A. Be responsible for 5% of the final financial cost of the overall project construction.
                        B. Provide all project labor free of charge
4. The participants indicate their agreement in principle with this MOU by providing their signatures below:
Duke Chapter, Engineers Without Borders                                        ___________________

                                                                                                            (Print name; Title)

Rural Agency for Sustainable Development                                      ___________________

                                                                                                            (Print name; Title)

Town Council, Nkokonjeru                                                                ___________________

                                                                                                            (Print name; Title) 

9.0 Cost Estimate

Provide a preliminary level cost estimate for the project.

Budget Summary



Construction Expenses








Break Down of Costs

1. Construction Expenses


Unit Price ($)

Total (x5)

polyethane plastic (5 meters)



cement for bricks (6 bags)



cement for building (12 bags)



labor for making bricks



sand (from the lake - 1 truck)



pit sand (1 truck)



iron sheets (4 pieces)



timber (4 pieces)



welded wire mesh



tap, wash out (for cleaning), and robbins (used to tie things on)



binding wires (3 kg)



waterproof cement (20 kg)



building labor



gravel (1 truck)



roofing nails (3 kg)



used engine oil (5 L)



transportation of brick to site



transportation for sand to site






Water Distribution Improvement Total






2. Travel Expenses


Per Person Cost

Total (x10)




Tourism Visa






Other required medical tests



Transportation to Project Site






3. Living Expenses


Per Person Cost

Total (x10)

Lodging in Kampala + Entebbe



Food and water in Kampala + Entebbe



Food and water in Nkokonjeru



10.0 Mentor Assessment

The Professional Mentor (for student chapters) or Technical Lead (for professional chapters) should write a short assessment of how the project team prepared this preliminary (30%) design document. This assessment should include individuals involved, studies and designs carried out, project management tasks and quality control procedures followed. You should discuss the requirement in this section with your Professional Mentor/Technical Lead ahead of time to accommodate their schedule in anticipating the submittal deadline. This section is required for review.

10.1 Professional Mentor/Technical Lead Name - List the name of the Professional Mentor/Technical Lead who wrote the assessment.


  • No labels