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  1. Investigating how sleep patterns vary beween humans and other primates, and across various human cultures (Nunn & Samson 2018).
  2. Contextualizing the "uniqueness" of Homo sapiens by identifying traits that fall within predicted boundaries based on comparison across primates (Miller et al. 2019a). 
  3. Investigating the evolution of the human brain through phylogenetic comparative analysis (Miller et al. 2019b).
  4. Understanding relationships between parasites, vectors, and hosts through the field of evolutionary medicine (Nunn 2018).
  5. Revealing a biological basis, rather than a uniquely-human cultural basis, for the relationship between early-life adversity and longevity (Zipple et al. 2019).

The phylogenetic relationship between species affects patterns of traits across those species, with more closely-related species more likely to share traits. Therefore, comparaitve comparative approaches rely on phylogenetic analysis to distinguish between relationships that are associated with phylogeny and those that have other causes.